CentOS7 安装Mariadb

MariaDB 数据库管理系统是 MySQL 的一个分支,主要由开源社区在维护,采用 GPL 授权许可。开发这个分支的原因之一是:甲骨文公司收购了 MySQL 后,有将 MySQL 闭源的潜在风险,因此社区采用分支的方式来避开这个风险。MariaDB完全兼容mysql,使用方法也是一样的

有的centos7已经默认安装了Mariadb,可以查看自己的有没有安装,没有安装的再进行安装,已经安装了可以不用安装也可以卸载了重装。卸载命令 yum remove mariadb-server

1 [root@mini ~]# cat /etc/redhat-release
2 CentOS Linux release 7.5.1804 (Core)
3 [root@mini ~]#

1、安装MariaDB

 通过yum安装就行了。简单快捷,安装mariadb-server,默认依赖安装mariadb,一个是服务端、一个是客户端。

[root@mini ~]# yum install mariadb-server

2、配置MariaDB

1)安装完成后首先要把MariaDB服务开启,并设置为开机启动

[root@mini ~]# systemctl start mariadb  # 开启服务

[root@mini ~]

# systemctl enable mariadb # 设置为开机自启动服务

2)首次安装需要进行数据库的配置,命令都和mysql的一样

[root@mini ~]# mysql_secure_installation

 3)配置时出现的各个选项

Enter current password for root (enter for none):  # 输入数据库超级管理员root的密码(注意不是系统root的密码),第一次进入还没有设置密码则直接回车

Set root password? [Y/n]  # 设置密码,y

New password:  # 新密码
Re-enter new password:  # 再次输入密码

Remove anonymous users? [Y/n]  # 移除匿名用户, y

Disallow root login remotely? [Y/n]  # 拒绝root远程登录,n,不管y/n,都会拒绝root远程登录

Remove test database and access to it? [Y/n]  # 删除test数据库,y:删除。n:不删除,数据库中会有一个test数据库,一般不需要

Reload privilege tables now? [Y/n]  # 重新加载权限表,y。或者重启服务也许

4)测试是否能够登录成功,出现  MariaDB [(none)]> 就表示已经能够正常登录使用MariaDB数据库了

[root@mini ~]# mysql -u root -p
Enter password:
Welcome to the MariaDB monitor.  Commands end with ; or \g.
Your MariaDB connection id is 8
Server version: 5.5.60-MariaDB MariaDB Server

Copyright (c) 2000, 2018, Oracle, MariaDB Corporation Ab and others.

Type 'help;' or '\h' for help. Type '\c' to clear the current input statement.

MariaDB [(none)]>

3、设置MariaDB字符集为utf-8

 1)/etc/my.cnf 文件

在  [mysqld]  标签下添加

init_connect='SET collation_connection = utf8_unicode_ci'
init_connect='SET NAMES utf8'
character-set-server=utf8
collation-server=utf8_unicode_ci
skip-character-set-client-handshake

2)/etc/my.cnf.d/client.cnf 文件

在  [client]  标签下添加

default-character-set=utf8

3)/etc/my.cnf.d/mysql-clients.cnf  文件

在  [mysql]  标签下添加

default-character-set=utf8

4)重启服务

[root@mini ~]# systemctl restart mariadb

5)进入mariadb查看字符集

MariaDB [(none)]> show variables like "%character%";show variables like "%collation%";
+--------------------------+----------------------------+
| Variable_name            | Value                      |
+--------------------------+----------------------------+
| character_set_client     | utf8                       |
| character_set_connection | utf8                       |
| character_set_database   | latin1                     |
| character_set_filesystem | binary                     |
| character_set_results    | utf8                       |
| character_set_server     | latin1                     |
| character_set_system     | utf8                       |
| character_sets_dir       | /usr/share/mysql/charsets/ |
+--------------------------+----------------------------+
8 rows in set (0.01 sec)

+----------------------+-------------------+
| Variable_name        | Value             |
+----------------------+-------------------+
| collation_connection | utf8_general_ci   |
| collation_database   | latin1_swedish_ci |
| collation_server     | latin1_swedish_ci |
+----------------------+-------------------+
3 rows in set (0.00 sec)

MariaDB [(none)]>
MariaDB [(none)]> show variables like "%character%";show variables like "%collation%";
+--------------------------+----------------------------+
| Variable_name            | Value                      |
+--------------------------+----------------------------+
| character_set_client     | utf8                       |
| character_set_connection | utf8                       |
| character_set_database   | utf8                       |
| character_set_filesystem | binary                     |
| character_set_results    | utf8                       |
| character_set_server     | utf8                       |
| character_set_system     | utf8                       |
| character_sets_dir       | /usr/share/mysql/charsets/ |
+--------------------------+----------------------------+
8 rows in set (0.00 sec)

+----------------------+-----------------+
| Variable_name        | Value           |
+----------------------+-----------------+
| collation_connection | utf8_unicode_ci |
| collation_database   | utf8_unicode_ci |
| collation_server     | utf8_unicode_ci |
+----------------------+-----------------+
3 rows in set (0.00 sec)

MariaDB [(none)]>

4、远程链接mariadb数据库

mariadb默认是拒绝 root 远程登录的。这里用的是 navicat 软件连接数据库

1)关闭防火墙

① 关闭防火墙 systemctl stop firewalld 

[root@mini ~]# systemctl stop firewalld

② 在不关闭防火墙的情况下,允许某端口的外来链接。步骤如下,开启3306端口,重启防火墙

[root@mini ~]# firewall-cmd --query-port=3306/tcp  # 查看3306端口是否开启
 no 
[root@mini ~]# firewall-cmd --zone=public --add-port=3306/tcp --permanent  # 开启3306端口 
success 
[root@mini ~]# firewall-cmd --reload  # 重启防火墙 
success 
[root@mini ~]# firewall-cmd --query-port=3306/tcp  # 查看3306端口是否开启 yes

2)先查看mysql数据库中的user表

[root@mini ~]# mysql -u root -p  # 先通过本地链接进入数据库

MariaDB [(none)]> use mysql;

MariaDB [mysql]> select host, user from user;
+-----------+------+
| host      | user |
+-----------+------+
| 127.0.0.1 | root |
| ::1       | root |
| mini      | root |
+-----------+------+
3 rows in set (0.00 sec)
复制代码

3)将与主机名相等的字段改为 “%” ,我的主机名为mini,

复制代码
MariaDB [mysql]> update user set host='%' where host='mini';
Query OK, 1 row affected (0.00 sec)
Rows matched: 1  Changed: 1  Warnings: 0

MariaDB [mysql]> select host, user from user;
+-----------+------+
| host      | user |
+-----------+------+
| %         | root |
| 127.0.0.1 | root |
| localhost | root |
+-----------+------+
3 rows in set (0.00 sec)
复制代码

4)刷新权限表,或重启mariadb服务,一下二选一即可

MariaDB [mysql]> flush privileges;
Query OK, 0 rows affected (0.00 sec)
[root@mini ~]# systemctl restart mariadb

注意:刷新权限表是在数据库中,重启服务是在外部命令行中

6)重新远程链接mariadb

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